Wednesday, September 18, 2013

Properties of Heavy Water ( Physical, Chemical and Biological )

Physical Properties:

  • Heavy water is colorless, odourless and tasteless mobile liquid..
  • Higher viscosity of heavy water is responsible for lower solubility of ionic solids like NaCl and smaller mobility ions.
Chemical Properties: 
Reaction with Metals:
      Heavy water react slowly with alkali metals and alkaline earth metals to form heavy hydrogen. ( D2 ).
                                   D2O   +   2Na   →   2NaOD   +   D2
                                                         (Sodium deuteroxide)
                                  D2O   +   Ca   →   Ca(OD)2   +   D2

                                                        (Calcium deuteroxide)
Reaction with Metal oxides:
      Heavy water react slowly with metal oxide to form heavy alkalies. ( deuteroxides)
                                  Na2O   +   D2O   →   2NaOD
                                  CaO    +   D2O    →   Ca(OD)2
Reaction with Non-metallic oxides:
       Heavy water react with non-metallic oxides to form deutero acid.
                                 D2O   +   N2O5   →   2DNO3
                                                               (Deuteronitric acid)
                                 D2O   +   SO3   →   D2SO4
                                                              (Deutero sulphuric acid)
                                3D2O   +   P2O5   →   2D3PO4
                                                                (Deuterophosphoric acid)
Electrolysis :
       On electrolysis, heavy water containing dissolved Na2Co3 decomposes into deuterium and oxygen which are liberated at the cathode and anode respectively.
                                    2D2O    →    2D2       +      O2
                                                      (cathode)        (anode)
Deutero hydrates:
          With salt and other compounds they form deuterates.
CuSO4.5D2O,  Na2SO4.10D2O,  NiCl2.6D2O.
 Exchange Reactions:
           When compounds containing hydrogen are treated with D2O  , hydrogen is exchanged by deuterium partially or completely.
                                       NaOH    +    D2O     →    NaOD    +    HDO
                                      NH4Cl    +    4D2O    →    ND4Cl    +    4HDO
                                       HCl        +    D2O      →    DCl       +    4HDO
Raction with Carbide and Nitride:
                                     CaC2    +    2D2O    →    Ca(OD)2    +    DC = CD
                                     Mg3N  +    6D2O     →     3Mg(OD)2    +     2ND3  
                             (Magnesium nitride)                                              (Deuterommonia)
Reaction with Phosphides:                                                                                                                                                            Ca3P2    +    6D2O    →     3Ca(OD)2    +    2PD3
                           (Calcium phosphide)                                         (Deuterophosphine)
                                       Na3As    +    3D2O    →    NaOD    +    AsD3
                            (Sodium arsenide)                                        (Deuteroarsene)
Biological Properties:
  • The tobacco seeds do not grow in heavy water.
  • Pure heavy water kill small fish, tadpoles and mice when fed upon it.
  • Heavy water, retards the growth of living organisms like plants and animals.

1 comment:

  1. The chemical and physical properties of ionic liquids depend on the combination of cations and anions, and the length of the alkyl chains and functional groups also have a significant effect on their properties. Functionized ionic liquids