Friday, October 4, 2013

Sodium ( Alkali Metal )

  • Sodium was discovered by Humphry Davy in 1807. From the Latin name of sodanum (headache remedy)
  • It is a bright silvery metal and highly reactive than lithium.
  • Sodium floats on water, which decomposes it to evolve hydrogen and form the hydroxide.
  • It is a soft metal readily cut with the knife and is a good conductor of electricity.
  • Sodium is relatively abundant in the sun and other stars.
  • Sodium occurs in many minerals such as Cryolite, Zeolite, amphipole and sodalite.
  • It is not found free in nature.
Symbol                                -  Na
Atomic number                  - 11
Number of electrons          - 2, 8, 1
Electronic configuration  - [ Neon ]  3s1
Melting point                     - 370.87 K
Boiling point                      - 1156 K
Atomic weight                    -  22.9897

Atomic Structure:

  • Sodium vapour is used in lamps for street light.
  • It is used for manufacture of sodamide, sodium cyanide, sodium peroxide and sodium hydride.
  • Sodium compounds are used in glass, paper, chemical, soap, petroleum and metal industries.
  • It is used in the reduction of organic ester and preparation of organic compounds.
  • The alloy of sodium and potassium is ( NaK )- It is a good chemical reducing agent and heat transfer agent.
  • Sodium metal is used in the preparation of (tetraethyl lead) PbEt4 and titanium metal from PbEt4
  • Sodium chloride is important for animal nutrition.

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