- Sodium was discovered by Humphry Davy in 1807. From the Latin name of sodanum (headache remedy)
- It is a bright silvery metal and highly reactive than lithium.
- Sodium floats on water, which decomposes it to evolve hydrogen and form the hydroxide.
- It is a soft metal readily cut with the knife and is a good conductor of electricity.
- Sodium is relatively abundant in the sun and other stars.
- Sodium occurs in many minerals such as Cryolite, Zeolite, amphipole and sodalite.
- It is not found free in nature.
Atomic number - 11
Number of electrons - 2, 8, 1
Electronic configuration - [ Neon ] 3s1
Melting point - 370.87 K
Boiling point - 1156 K
Atomic weight - 22.9897
- Sodium vapour is used in lamps for street light.
- It is used for manufacture of sodamide, sodium cyanide, sodium peroxide and sodium hydride.
- Sodium compounds are used in glass, paper, chemical, soap, petroleum and metal industries.
- It is used in the reduction of organic ester and preparation of organic compounds.
- The alloy of sodium and potassium is ( NaK )- It is a good chemical reducing agent and heat transfer agent.
- Sodium metal is used in the preparation of (tetraethyl lead) PbEt4 and titanium metal from PbEt4
- Sodium chloride is important for animal nutrition.